Historical Background of Zanzibar
The first permanent residents of Zanzibar seem to have been the ancestors of the Hadimu and Tumbatu, who began arriving from the East African mainland in AD 1000. They had belonged to various mainland ethnic groups, and on Zanzibar they lived in small villages and did not coalesce to form larger political units. Because they lacked central organization, they were easily subjugated by outsiders. Traders from Arabia, the Persian Gulf region of modern Iran (especially Shiraz), and W India probably visited Zanzibar as early as the 1st cent.; they used the monsoon winds to sail across the Indian Ocean and landed at the sheltered harbor located on the site of present-day Zanzibar town. Although the islands had few resources of interest to the traders, they offered a good point from which to make contact with the towns of the East African coast. Traders from the Persian Gulf region began to settle in small numbers on Zanzibar in the late 11th or 12th cent.; they intermarried with the indigenous Africans and eventually a hereditary ruler (known as the Mwinyi Mkuu or Jumbe), emerged among the Hadimu. A similar ruler, called the Sheha, was set up among the Tumbatu. Neither rulers had much power, but they helped solidify the ethnic identity of their respective peoples.
Asian, European, and Arab Influences
The Chinese admiral Cheng Ho (Zheng He) moored his vast trading fleet in the Zanzibar harbor early in the 15th cent. The first European to visit Zanzibar was the Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama in 1499; by 1503 the Portuguese had gained control of Zanzibar, and soon they held most of the E African coast. The Portuguese established a trading station and a Roman Catholic mission in Zanzibar and dominated the island for some 200 years. Nonetheless, their cultural impact proved to be minimal. In 1698, Arabs from Oman ousted the Portuguese from E Africa, including Zanzibar. The Omanis gained nominal control of the islands, but until the reign of Sayyid Said (1804–56) they took little interest in them. Said recognized the commercial value of E Africa and increasingly turned his attention to Zanzibar and Pemba. In 1840 he permanently moved his court to Zanzibar town, and proceeded to exploit the natural resources of the island by planting thousands of clove trees. Said brought many Arabs with him, and they gained control of Zanzibar’s fertile soil, forcing most of the Hadimu to migrate to the eastern part of Zanzibar island. The Hadimu were also obligated to work on the clove plantations. Said controlled much of the E African coast, and Zanzibar became the main center of the E African ivory and slave trade. Some of the slaves were used on the clove plantations, and others were exported to other parts of Africa and overseas. Zanzibar’s trade was run by Omanis, who organized caravans into the interior of E Africa; the trade was largely financed by Indians resident on Zanzibar, many of whom were agents of Bombay firms. On Said’s death in 1856 his African and Omani holdings were separated, with his son Majid becoming sultan of Zanzibar. Majid was succeeded as sultan by Barghash in 1870, by Khalifa in 1888, by Ali ibn Said in 1890, by Hamid ibn Thuwain in 1893, by Hamoud ibn Muhammad in 1896, by Ali in 1902, by Khalifa ibn Naroub in 1911, by Abdullah ibn Khalifa in 1960, and by Jamshid ibn Abdullah in 1963. From the 1820s, British, German, and U.S. traders were active on Zanzibar. As early as 1841 the representative of the British government on Zanzibar was an influential adviser of the sultan. This was especially the case under Sir John Kirk, the British consul from 1866 to 1887. In a treaty with Great Britain in 1873, Barghash agreed to halt the slave trade in his realm. During the scramble for African territory among European powers, Great Britain gained a protectorate over Zanzibar and Pemba by a treaty with Germany in 1890. The sultan’s mainland holdings were incorporated in German East Africa (later Tanganyika), British East Africa (later Kenya), and Italian Somaliland. The British considered Zanzibar an essentially Arab country and maintained the prevailing power structure. The office of sultan was retained (although stripped of most of its power), and Arabs, almost to the exclusion of other groups, were given opportunities for higher education and were recruited for bureaucratic posts. The chief government official during the period 1890 to 1913 was the British consul general, and from 1913 to 1963 it was the British resident. From 1926 the resident was advised by a legislative assembly.
Independence and Union
After World War II political activity in Zanzibar increased. In the 1950s three main political parties were established—the Zanzibar Nationalist party (ZNP) and its offshoot the Zanzibar and Pemba People’s party (ZPPP), both of which principally represented the Arabs, and the Afro-Shirazi party (ASP), whose followers were Africans. In 1957 popularly elected representatives sat on the legislative council for the first time, and in 1961, they were given a majority of seats. In June, 1963, Zanzibar gained internal self-government, and a ZNP-ZPPP coalition emerged victorious in elections held in July. On Dec. 10, 1963, Zanzibar (including Pemba) became independent, with Sultan Jamshid ibn Abdullah as head of state and Prime Minister Muhammad Shamte Hamadi, also an Arab, as the leader of government. On Jan. 12, 1964, this arrangement was overthrown by a violent leftist revolt of the Africans led by John Okello. A republic was declared, with Abeid Karume of the ASP as its president and as head of the Revolutionary Council (the country’s chief governmental body). The sultan was forced into exile, all land was nationalized, the ZNP and ZPPP were banned, and numerous Arabs were imprisoned. Subsequently, many other Arabs and some Indians left the country. Three months later Zanzibar and Tanganyika agreed to merge, and the resulting republic was renamed Tanzania in Oct., 1964. Zanzibar retains considerable independence in internal affairs, but its foreign relations and defense are handled by the central government. Zanzibar’s chief executive serves as the first vice president of Tanzania when Tanzania’s president is Tanganyikan, and as Second Vice President when Tanzania’s President is Zanzibari. In 1979 a separate constitution was approved for Zanzibar. In 1984, Zanzibar’s president, Aboud Jumbe, resigned, as the Tanzanian government appeared to be seeking greater control over Zanzibar. Ali Hassan Mwinyi, a mainland loyalist, took over as president and several secessionists were arrested. Mwinyi went on to introduce liberal reforms in Zanzibar and in the mainland and became president of Tanzania in 1986. In 1990, Dr. Salmin Amour became president of Zanzibar; he was returned to office in a 1995 vote. Mr Amani Karume was elected president in 2000 in an election. An accord signed in 2001 called for a number of electoral and governmental reforms that were designed to end political tensions. Karume was reelected in 2005 in an election that was criticized for some irregularites and political violence and denounced by the opposition, but it was also regarded as an improvement over previous elections. Subsequent negotiations to establish a coalition government that would include the opposition, which is especially strong on Pemba, proved unsuccessful, but in 2010 voters in a referendum approved the formation of proportionally based power-sharing coalition governments. A 2006 court challenge by Zanzibaris activists to the legality of the 1964 Act of Union that formed Tanzania was dismissed by the High Court of Zanzibar. Ali Mohamed Shein, the ruling party candidate, won 2010 elections and on October 10, 2010 sworn in to be a president of Zanzibar.
Government of National Unity in Zanzibar (GNU)
As a semi-autonomous part of Tanzania, Zanzibar has its own government, known as the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar. It is made up of the Revolutionary Council and House of Representatives. Zanzibar has a government of national unity, and Dr. Ali Mohamed Shein is the current President of Zanzibar and Revolutionary Council since 1 November 2010. Through an agreement, the GNU was instituted when the Referendum Act was passed by the House of Representatives, giving an opportunity to Zanzibaris to first decide on the GNU. A 66.4 per cent of voters accepted the GNU. Subsequently, the tenth amendment of the Constitution of Zanzibar of 1984, which among other things, included the formation of the GNU was passed. The formation of a government of national unity between Zanzibar’s two leading parties succeeded in minimizing electoral tension in 2010. In the Zanzibar context, a GNU is defined as a government which incorporates representatives of political parties winning a seat or seats in the Zanzibar House of Representatives. A GNU is a power sharing system of political parties winning seats in the legislature. A political party which does not win a seat in the legislature cannot enjoy a share of the cake. In the spirit of good governance, and in recognition of the existence of other political parties and appreciation of the country politics, the president can invoke his constitutional powers to nominate representatives of these parties to join the House. The constitution gives the president the power to nominate ten members who qualify to be members of the House to the House.
Overview of the President’s Office and Chairman of the Revolutionary Council
The President’s Office and the Chairman of the Revolutionary Council (POCRC) is one among sixteen Ministries established in the Seventh Phase of the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar. The Office plays a central role that lies in overseeing development programmes and activities aiming at reduction and ultimately alleviation of poverty among Zanzibari’s as well as strengthening Good Governance and Human Rights
Under the Seventh Phase of the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar, The President’s Office and Chairman of the Revolutionary Council has made major strides in the restructuring of its departments whereby new departments have been established while others have been merged. In August 2013, once again the President’s Office and Chairman of the Revolutionary Council was restructured where portfolio on Coordination of the Regional Administration and the Local Government Authorities, Zanzibar Identity Cards and the Registration Office and the Special Department were moved to the President’s Office Regional Administration and Special Departments of the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar. While, issues related to Good Governance and Planning were moved to this Office. Therefore, additional mandates and responsibilities for the President’s Office and the Chairman of the Revolutionary Council have been set to deal with the Good Governance and Economic Planning. As a result, the following institutions are moved under the portfolio of President’s Office State House and Good Governance:-
i) Planning Commission;
ii) Zanzibar Anti- Corruption and Economic Crime Authority;
iii) Office of Controller and Auditor General Zanzibar; and
iv) Department of Good Governance.
The new structure was put in place with the view to improving efficiency and supervision of the Government related activities in order to achieve the development objectives of the country in terms of good governance and provision of quality and efficient service delivery that will enable the creation of conducive environment for wealth creation at both individual and national levels at large.
Based on the new structure, the responsibilities of PO – CRC have been increased where issues that are related to Good Governance, modern working tools and staff capacity have been accorded a higher priority. In light of this argument, the medium plan has been prepared, taking the account of all the above points and at the same time taking the role of mainstreaming the image of the President of Zanzibar and Chairman of the Revolutionary Council.
The current organization structure of the President’s Office and Chairman of Revolutionary Council is composed of the following Departments and Offices.
i) The Private Office;
ii) The Office of Revolutionary Council;
iii) The Department of Planning, Policy and Research;
iv) The Department of Administration and Human Resource;
v) The Department of Communication – State House;
vi) The Government Security Office;
vii) The Department of Good Governance;
viii) The Department of International Cooperation and Coordination of Zanzibar Diaspora;
ix) The Zanzibar Anti Corruption and Economic Authority;
x) The Office of Chief Government Statistician;
xi) The Department of Economic Management;
xii) The Department of National Planning, Sectoral Development and Poverty Reduction;
xiii) The Department of Human Resource Development Plan;
xiv) The Office of Controller and Auditor General Zanzibar; and
xv) The Office of Officer –In- Charge in Pemba.
The President’s Office and Chairman of the Revolutionary Council has been mandated to perform the following core functions as enumerated hereunder:-
i). To supervise the general administration of Ministry;
ii). To develop and supervise implementation of relevant sector policies and plans;
iii). To supervise the management and development of human resources in the Ministry;
iv). To supervise the Presidential affairs;
v). To supervise cabinet affairs;
vi). To coordinate Regional and International Cooperation, International Relations and Zanzibar Diaspora issues;
vii). To supervise the Government Security Office;
viii). To supervise the Office of Controller and Auditor General;
ix). To supervise and promote Good Governance (Leader`s ethics, Anti-corruption, Human Rights, Receiving public complains and acting accordingly;
x). To coordinate and supervise the implementation of the Vision 2020, MKUZA and attainment of the Millennium Development Goals;
xi). To supervise economic management and development of the Country;
xii). To supervise poverty reduction programme;
xiii). To supervise general population issues; and
xiv). To supervise general statistics including population statistics.
P.O. Box 2422, Zanzibar,
About Zanzibar Diaspora
The Department of International Cooperation has been accorded an additional mandates of Coordinating Diaspora affairs with view to engaging them in socio – economic development of Zanzibar.Diaspora Unit has housed within the Department of International Cooperation, in the office of The President and Chairman of Revolutionary Council. The Department is headed by Deputy Principal Secretary (dealing with International Cooperation and coordination of Zanzibar Diaspora) assistance by Director.
The Department of International Cooperation has been accorded an additional mandates of Coordinating Diaspora affairs with view to engaging them in socio – economic development of Zanzibar.In terms of structure The Department is divided into three desks. Desk one deals with Regional integration with spearfish interest in East African Community. Desk 2 deals with Regional integration focusing in Southern African Development Community (SADC) and desk 3 deals with International Affairs and Indian Ocean Rim for Regional Cooperation.
To be an Office that facilitates the engagement of Zanzibaris living in Diaspora, who will ultimately be part of Zanzibar development Stakeholders, devoted for socio-economic development.
To act as a bridge between the government of Zanzibar and Zanzibaris living in Diaspora, and preparing a Conducive environment for their effective engagement in socio-economic development of Zanzibar.
RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AND ZANZIBAR DIASPORA.
The Department of International Cooperation and Coordination of Zanzibar Diaspora has been mandated to undertake the following responsibilities.
1. To facilitate the sectoral experts to participate to the Country’s Consultative meetings.
2. To Coordinate and participate in regional integration meetings (be it EAC, SADC and Indian Ocean Rims) within and outside the Country.
3. To Coordinate the Zanzibaris living in Diaspora with their Homeland, so that they can effectively be engaged in Zanzibar socio-economic development.
WHAT HAVE WE DONE SO FAR.?
Since its inception, a part from doing the daily’s routine works of participating in regional integration meetings, the Department among others has managed to achieve the following.
a) Formulation of Zanzibar Diaspora Strategic Plan, which has come up with a number of activities to be implemented during the next four Zanzibar Diaspora.
b) Formulation of Zanzibar Diaspora Advisory Committee which has down participants from strategic sectors.
c) Formation of Diaspora Coordinating Committee.
d) Zanzibar Diaspora Strategy.
ZANZIBAR DIASPORA ASSOCIATIONS WITH WHICH WE HAVE CONTACTS.
So far, the Department is in Contact with the following Association.
• ZAWA UK which is based in London, United Kingdom.
• ZACANADIA which is based in Toronto Canada.
• Zanzibar Scandinavian Diaspora Association which is based in Copenhagen Denmark.
• Strengthening the ties with the current associations, and keen to find new ones.
• Organizing meetings with Zanzibaris in the Country of their Residence.
• The Department is keen to know, the population of Zanzibaris in Diaspora, areas of concentration, their skills and professions and other necessary information.
2nd Floor | Sheria House
Mazizini , Zanzibar
The Business and Property Registration Agency (BPRA) is the one of the oldest Government offices which is mandated with the registration and issuance of Certificates of vital events – Births, Deaths, Marriages and Divorces, and Adoption, (Births and Deaths Registration Act No. 10 of 2006 and Marriage (Solemnization) Decree Cap. 92 and Marriage and Divorce Decree Cap. 91), also the registration of commercial/business entities as well as property registrations.The need for BPRA to handle registration activities (to low administrative areas), the need for dual structure to coordinate different agencies with common interest in civil registration.
Before the establishment of the “Wakf and Trust Commission” in 1985, the Registrar General was also the Administrator General of the Wakf and Trust properties.Since then, the Registrar General has become the “Administrator General of Non Muslim Estate” Apart from the registration activities, the Registrar General has also legal duty to maintain registers, index books; data and records on registrations effected by the Business and Property Registration Agency and has thus become a legal custodian of all information and data on all the above registrations
Vision and Mission
Having registration by using computer (database) than can simply the registration services probably provided by effectiveness and in easily.
To make sure that registration activities are successful less than two weeks.
The Goals and Target of BPRA
To complete correction of the registration systems and rules governing registration including strengthening the management of the assets of the creative industry.
To develop and strengthen the Secretariat interact and educate the community about the activities of the Office of the Registrar General.
To implement changes in the system of registration
To strengthen the office of the Registrar of births and deaths operationally in the service delivery effectively.
What the Organization does.
Office of the Registrar General of the Government deals with registration activities in accordance with the laws governing different types of registration. Activities managed by the Office of the Registrar General Government includes registration of Commercial entities, innovative property documents, and the registration different documents concerning with citizens and visitors who do their activities on the Islands of Zanzibar, including marriage and divorce.
Clienteles of Zanzibar Registrar General Office.
Private and Public Companies,
NGO’s and other customer.
P.O. Box 23409,
Dar es Salaam,Tanzania.
The Open University of Tanzania was established by an Act of Parliament No. 17 of 1992. The Act became operational on 1st March, 1993 by publication of Notice No. 55 in the official gazette. The First Chancellor was officially installed in a full ceremony on 19th January, 1994. Act No.17 of 1992 has now been replaced by the Open University of Tanzania Charter, effectively from January 1st, 2007, which is in line with the University Act No.7 of 2005.
The Open University of Tanzania is the first university in the whole of the East Africa region to offer educational programs through Open and Distance Learning mode. This makes OUT peculiar from conventional residential universities. Through Open and Distance Learning, OUT allows flexible learning environment leading to protracted periods of course completion. OUT offers different academic programs which are certificates, diplomas, degrees and postgraduate courses. Educational Delivery is attained through various means of communication such as broadcasting, telecasting, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), correspondence, enhanced face to face, seminars, contact programs or the combination of any two or more of such means.